An American initiative, Discipline by Design suggests a somewhat different list of suggestions for teachers, such as using “direct instruction,” that involves ensuring students know in advance what will be transpiring in the lesson. As with Mr. Fontana’s recommendations, teachers are also advised to be aware that they are modelling behaviour. However, they also suggest a degree of traditional authoritarianism; recommending “assertive discipline” and “assertive I-messages,” while focusing on desired behaviour and not on misbehaviour.